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Calcium (Ca) is an element found in the body that is an important component of bone. It is also important in normal cell function, muscle contraction, heart action, nervous system maintenance, and blood clotting. The parathyroid glands regulate serum calcium concentrations and bone metabolism. In turn,serum calcium concentrations regulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion via negative feedback. Hypercalcemia may be caused by hyperparathyroidism,multiple myeloma, or excessive vitamin D intake, while hypocalcemia may result from hypoparathyroidism, low vitamin D intake, pregnancy, osteomalacia,and certain renal disease